European Defence Cooperation

European defence matters. For the European Union to be a credible security provider and to protect its interests, it requires the full suite of tools: diplomatic, economic, development, and of course military.

Recent operations have demonstrated critical gaps in European military capabilities. But while defence budgets are under pressure and investment is in decline, costs of major defence systems are rising. For European Member States cooperation in defence is the solution to acquire and maintain critical capabilities.

Among other things, Heads of State and Government supported during the European Council meeting of December 2013 a more systematic and long-term approach to cooperation through increased transparency and information-sharing in defence planning.


Pooling & Sharing

Based on a German-Swedish food for thought paper on intensifying European military cooperation in 2010 (the “Ghent Initiative”), EDA together with its Member States developed the Pooling & Sharing initiative. The concept refers to initiatives and projects to pool and share more military capabilities among EU Member States. In November 2011 EDA proposed and Defence Ministers adopted an initial list of eleven Pooling & Sharing priorities. Among these projects are Air-to-Air Refuelling, the Helicopter Training Programme, maritime surveillance, or the European Satellite Communications Procurement Cell .

In its efforts to promote a systematic approach towards Pooling & Sharing, EDA proposed and Ministers adopted on 19 November 2012 the “Code of Conduct on Pooling & Sharing”. The Code comprises a series of actions to support cooperative efforts of EU Member States to develop defence capabilities. The actions herein are aimed at mainstreaming Pooling & Sharing in Member States’ planning and decision-making processes. They are to be implemented on a national and voluntary basis, in line with defence policies of Member States.

In December 2013 the European Council made a clear case for increased defence cooperation and welcomed the progress achieved by the Agency’s Code of Conduct on Pooling & Sharing. Additionally, Heads of State and Government asked for a policy framework to foster more systematic and long term cooperation by the end of 2014.


More information

Participating Member States

  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Czech
  • Germany
  • Estonia
  • Ireland
  • Greece
  • Spain
  • France
  • Croatia
  • Italy
  • Cyprus
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Hungary
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Austria
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovenia
  • Slovakia
  • Finland
  • Sweden
  • UK